Ford Mustang Service Manual: Pinpoint Tests

Principles of Operation

Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Canister Purge Valve

The EVAP canister purge valve is controlled by the powertrain control module (PCM). The EVAP canister purge valve controls the flow of fuel vapors from the EVAP canister to the engine intake manifold during various engine operating modes. The EVAP canister purge valve is normally closed.

Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Canister

Fuel vapors from the fuel tank are stored in the EVAP canister. When the engine is running, the vapors are purged from the EVAP canister for combustion.

Canister Vent Solenoid

During the Evaporative Emission (EVAP) System Test Monitor, Evaporative Emissions Repair Verification Drive Cycle, and the Evaporative Emission System Leak Test, the canister vent solenoid is closed to allow a vacuum to be drawn on the fuel tank at a specific level. The canister vent solenoid is normally open.

Fuel Tank Pressure (FTP) Sensor

The fuel tank pressure sensor is used to measure the fuel tank pressure during the Evaporative Emissions Monitor Test. The fuel tank pressure sensor is mounted in the fuel vapor control valve tube as it crosses over the fuel tank.

Fuel Vapor Control Valve

The fuel vapor control valve is normally between the EVAP canister and the fuel vapor vent valve. Its function is to prevent the flow of liquid fuel into the EVAP canister or up to the canister purge valve during refueling, and to prevent the collection of liquid fuel in the fuel vapor hoses by overfilling the fuel tank.

Fuel Vapor Vent Valve (FVV) Assembly

The fuel vapor vent valve (FVV) assembly is mounted on the top of the fuel tank. It is used to control the flow of fuel vapors entering the EVAP system. The head portion of the assembly prevents the fuel tank from overfilling during refueling. The assembly also has a spring float, which prevents liquid fuel from entering the vapor delivery system under severe handling or vehicle rollover conditions. In the upright position, the open bottom of the float will lift and shut off the orifice. Under severe handling conditions, the spring will push the float closed when angles allow liquid fuel to reach the orifice. In a rollover condition, the weight of the open bottom float and spring pressure will close the orifice.

Fuel Filler Pipe Check Valve

The fuel filler pipe check valve is an intricate part of the fuel filler pipe. It is intended to prevent liquid fuel from re-entering the fuel filler pipe from the fuel tank on refueling or roll over conditions.

Fuel Filler Cap

The fuel filler cap is used to prevent fuel spill and to close the EVAP system to the atmosphere.

Evaporative Emission System Monitor

When a fault occurs, the EVAP system monitor is reset to NO and a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) is set in the PCM memory. After the DTC is repaired, the vehicle drive cycle must be completed to reset the monitor in preparation for inspection and maintenance testing.

EVAP Emission System Leak Test

To start the testing, conditions of stable purging and vehicle speed must be satisfied. During the first stage, the canister vent solenoid is closed, while the EVAP canister purge valve remains open, applying and building vacuum in the system as indicated by the FTP sensor. This phase checks for major leaks in the EVAP system.

In the second stage, the EVAP canister purge valve closes and the system looks for minimal decay rate in the EVAP vacuum, indicating the absence of any small EVAP system leaks.

The last stage is entered only if stage two of the leak test has failed and checks whether the failed test was due to excess vapor generation. It monitors fuel vapor generation rate. Initially, the canister vent solenoid is opened to equalize EVAP system pressure to atmosphere. Then the canister vent solenoid is closed, allowing pressure to build if vapor generation is present in sufficient quantity. If the rate of generation is found to be too high, the EVAP running loss system leak test is aborted. If not, then a small leak is diagnosed.

On-Board Refueling Vapor Recovery (ORVR) Evaporative Emission (EVAP) System

The basic elements forming the ORVR system are as follows:

  • The fuel filler pipe forms a seal to prevent vapors from escaping the fuel tank while liquid is entering the fuel tank. Liquid in the one inch diameter tube blocks vapors from rushing back up the fuel filler pipe.
  • A fuel vapor control valve controls the flow of vapors out of the fuel tank. The valve closes when the liquid level reaches a height associated with fuel tank usable capacity. The valve accomplishes the following:
  • limits the total amount of fuel that can be dispensed into the fuel tank
  • prevents liquid gasoline from exiting the fuel tank when submerged (as well as when tipped well beyond a horizontal plane as part of the vehicle rollover protection in road accidents)
  • minimizes vapor flow resistance during anticipated refueling conditions
  • Fuel vapor tubing connects the fuel vapor control valve to the EVAP canister. This routes the fuel tank vapors, displaced by the incoming liquid, to the EVAP canister.
  • A check valve in the fuel filling system prevents liquid from rushing back up the fuel filler pipe during the liquid flow variations associated with the filler nozzle shut-off.

Between refueling events, the EVAP canister is purged with fresh air so that it may be used again to store vapors accumulated during engine soaks or subsequent refueling events. The vapors drawn off of the carbon in the EVAP canister are consumed by the engine.

    Inspection and Verification
    Principles of Operation Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Canister Purge Valve The EVAP canister purge valve is controlled by the powertrain control module (PCM). The EVAP canister purge valve controls ...

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